The structure of the Iranian medieval thought was changed by passing through different places for a long time. However, the nature of thought did not change and so this is the fixed and relatively stable characteristics of these streams of thought that lead researchers of history to analyze the processes of changes.
The science of architecture and its structural and functional competence helps researchers of human sciences to examine the streams of thought through examining similar structures and functions. The thought of the Iranian mysticism born in Khurasan developed by Bayazid Bastami (d. 874) and his followers like Abolhassan Kharaqani (d. 1034) in Qumes and then Sheikh Zahed Gilani (d. 1301) in Gilan and Lahijan.
Similarities in structures and functions of social monuments like mausoleums of Susis in regions with different climates led the researchers of history to find common points among different trends of thought despite all challenges they had gone through. Similarities in structures and functions of mausoleums of Bayazid Bastami in Bastam (Shahrud) and Sheikh Zahid Gilani in Lahijan attract the attention of researchers to common points in streams of mystic thought. Even though Sheikh Zahid was buried in a rainy humid region like Lahijan which is completely different from Bastam with its climate of four seasons, the structures of these two mausoleums have many similarities. The smooth blue dome of the Bayazid mausoleum turns into the multi-angle blue-green dome of Sheikh’s mausoleum.
Living in Bastam, Bayazid was influenced by Khurasan mysticism while Sheikh Zahid lived in Lahijan to develop mysticism in other cities like Ardebil. Locating two tombs in each of these two mausoleums is the main common function of these two monuments which distinguishes them from other Sufi mausoleums. Addressing two tombs of each mausoleum, this article addresses challenges that mysticism, Shia, and Sunni went through in the 8th to 13th centuries.
The Mausoleum of Bayazid consists of an interior hall and a large courtyard. Muhammad ibn Jafar (the son of 6th Shiite Imam) is enshrined in the interior hall (Miraqaie, 2000, p. 48) while the tomb of Bayazid is located in the courtyard in a small metal room. Pilgrims have to step on one stair and pass bending through a small door to sit down and visit Bayazid’s tomb. The proximity of two tombs representing mysticism and Shia thought has provoked many arguments among researchers.
Bayazid Bastami (d.874) was born in a Zoroastrian family converted to Islam. Many Sufi orders like Tifuria Naqshbandia and well-known Sufis like Abolhassan Kharaghani and Seyed Heidar Amoli attributed to him (Alikhani, 2005, p. 14).
Mysticism and its relationship with Shia and Sunni sects provoked many discussions. Indicating to two Bayazids in the medieval age one living in the 8th and the other in the 9th centuries, Zaryab Khoie concludes that Bayazid Bstami was the disciples of Imam Sadeq and so he was Shiite (Zaryab Khoie, 1995, Shams, 2013, p. 165; Sahlegi, 2005, pp. 63, 93, 94, 128, 133, 179, 181). Some researchers believe that Bayazid and Imam Jafar ibn Sadegh visited each other (Shafi’e Kadkani, 1991, p. 27) and others reject it (Haqiqat, 1966, p. 713).
Bastami was accused of heterodoxy by both Shia and Sunni scholars (Ibn Jozi, 1989, pp. 141-2; 238-241; Muhammad Taher Qomi, 1973, pp. 225-6 Purjavadi, 1999, pp. 14-15; Haqiqat, p. 713). However, there were many scholars like Khwaja Nasir al-Din Tusi (1923, pp. 158-159), Heidar Amoli (1968, pp. 204-206), Ibn Abi Jomhur Ahsaie and Molla Hossein Kashefi Va’ez (1911 pp. 165-166), and Molla Sadra Shirazi (Asfar, 1839, v. 8, pp. 310-311; Al-Shavahid, 2003, p. 220, Mafatih Al-Qayb, 2005, p. 529, Arshiya, 2012, p. 252) who regarded Bayazid as a pious man.
Locating two tombs in Sheikh Zahid’s mausoleum leads the mind from Bastam to Lahijan. It was constructed by Sultan Heidar on a hill to be protected from the flood (Rabino, 1839, pp. 364-365).
Consisting of two rooms, the mausoleum of Sheikh Zahid is surrounded by porches. It is constructed of wood and stone and ceramic roof (Purahmadi, 2010, p. 84). Located in the backroom, the shrine of Sheikh Zahid’s is made of thick green jars so that the tomb is not visible. The lack of visibility has created a kind of isolation for Sheikh Zahid’s tomb which is similar to the isolation of Bayazid Bastami’s. The tomb of Aqa Seyed Razi ibn Mahdi Hosseini Bashkojaies located in the first room resembles the tomb of Muhammad ibn Jafar in Bayazid’s mausoleum.
There have been many arguments about Sheikh Zahid and his relationship with Shia and Sunni thoughts. He was born in Siyavroud in 1218 (Ibn Bazzaz, 1996, p. 184; Khwandmir, 2008, p. 13; Satipour, 2010, p. 236). Ibn Bazzaz indicates the first journey of Sheikh Zahid to Gashtasfi (Ibn Bazzaz, p. 195). The Influence of Sheikh Zahid increased in that region so that the ruler of Sharvan and Qalandars (a group of Radical Sufis) turned against him (Muvahhid, 2002, pp. 188-189).
Sufis generally conveyed their thoughts via oral media and so there are not many documents about their ideas and their relationships with Shia and Sunni sects. The oral tradition followed seriously by Bayazid (Alikhani, 2005, p.14; Haqiqat) and Sheikh Zahid (Movahhed, p. 187) connected Bastam to Lahijan.
We can learn more about streams of thought and their origins through examining the architecture of Bayazid and Sheikh Zahid’s mausoleums. Mysticism is one of the main medieval streams of thought challenged by Shia and Sunni sects. This paper is not concerned with the Shia or Sunni attribution of Bayazid and Sheikh Zahid but to indicate the coexistence of mysticism with other sects. The proximity of Muhammad ibn Jafar and Bayazid Bastami’s tombs, as well as Seyed Razi ibn and Sheikh Zahid’s, shows that mysticism, Shia, and Sunni applied legitimacy and popularity of each other to survive despite all differences and challenges they involved. Growth of Mysticism in the medieval time worried rulers about the structure of their powers and so Sufis were sometimes suppressed; however, the capacities of architecture assisted mysticism to show visitors the coexistence of Sufism, Shia, and Sunni thoughts in some periods of medieval time.
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